Python Interview Preparation Guide for Freshers: Ace Your Way to Success

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Python Interview Preparation Guide for Freshers: Ace Your Way to Success


Table of Contents

Are you a fresher looking to kickstart your career in the exciting world of Python programming? Our blog article is here to guide you through the essential steps for preparing for a Python interview. Gain confidence, sharpen your skills, and maximize your chances of landing your dream job with our comprehensive Python interview preparation guide.

In this article, we provide a step-by-step roadmap tailored specifically for freshers entering the job market. We cover the fundamental topics and concepts that interviewers often focus on when assessing a candidate’s Python proficiency.


1. What is python ?

Python is an object-oriented programming language with automatic memory management that is very legible. While other languages require punctuation, it is the only language that may be written using English terms.

2. Explain the key features of Python

  • Easy to learn
  • Object-oriented
  • Open-source and free
  • High-level language
  • Extendable & Scalable

3. What is PEP 8?

A Python formatting guide called PEP 8 (Python Enhancement Proposal) is utilised. It improves the readability of the source code and gives it utility.

4. Why is Python different from other scripting languages?

A Python formatting guide called PEP 8 (Python Enhancement Proposal) is utilised. It improves the readability of the source code and gives it utility.

5. Explain memory management

Different parts of Python’s memory management are allotted to do specific functions including sharing, caching, and segmentation. A private heap region is used to manage memory in Python. Additionally, it features a garbage collector to clear heap space and delete unused memory.

Following are two parts of memory:

  • stack memory
  • heap memory

6. What are pickling and unpickling in Python?

Before an object can be saved to the disc, it must first be serialised and then unserialized. Byte codes are created from Python objects.

Pickling is the reverse of unpickling since pickling turns bytecode into objects that may be used with Python.

7. What are the modules in Python? Name some built-in modules.

Python modules are files that include definitions and statements in the language, such as demo.py.

The module in question is called “demo.”

Python modules are used to split up the huge programme into manageable, well-organized chunks.

8. What are the basic data types in Python?

There are five basic data types:

  • Numbers
  • String
  • List
  • Tuple
  • Dictionary

9. What is the use of tuple?

A data type like a list is called a tuple. Programs utilise it to organise related data into groups, much like a directory.

10. Explain local variables and global variables.

Global variables can be utilised both inside and outside of the function and are declared outside the function. It covers the entire world.

Local variables, which cannot be utilised outside the function and are declared inside the function or in the local scope.

11. What is the difference between Python Arrays and Lists?

Both lists and arrays are used to store data, but lists can hold any type and arrays can only carry one type of data

12. What is lambda in Python?

Any function can be declared with the keyword lambda, and that function is known as the lambda function. Simple function is what is listed as an argumen

13. Functions in Python.

Functions are the small segment of code, which are reusable codes used to perform actions when it is called. “def” keyword is used to define any function in Python.

14. What is a Dictionary in Python?

In Python, a dictionary is a built-in mapping that is an associative array (sometimes referred to as hashes).

15. Are arguments passed by value or reference in Python?

In Python, arguments are always passed by value.

16. What is Web Scraping? How do you achieve it?

Web scraping is a technique for capturing the vast volumes of data that are present on websites and saving it to the local computer or database tables. Several Python libraries, including urllib2, scrapy, pyquery, BeautifulSoap, etc., are available for web scraping.

17. How do you copy an object in Python?

We can copy an object by using the functions copy.copy() and copy.deepcopy()

18. Name a few libraries in Python used for data analysis and scientific computations.

NumPy, SciPy, Pandas, SciKit, Matplotlib, and Seaborn are a few of the libraries used for data analysis and scientific computing.

19. Instead of nested python why should we use NumPy array ?

A list of lists like the one you describe in Python would require at least 20 MB or so, whereas a 3D NumPy array with single-precision floats in the cells would take up only 4 MB.

20. What is a Python decorator?

A specific modification to the Python syntax that makes it easier to update functions and methods is known as a decorator.

21. What is a unittest?

Python’s unittest is the name of its testing framework. Unit testing frameworks for different languages share some of its characteristics.

Object-oriented programming’s key concepts are supported by unittest:

  • Test fixture
  • Test case
  • Test suite
  • Test runner

22. What is a negative index?

Positive and negative numbers can be used to index Python sequences. A negative index allows access to items starting at the list’s tail and counting backward.

23. Difference between Xrange() and range()?

Xrange() returns an Xrange object, which functions somewhat like an iterator and generates the numbers on demand, as opposed to Range() which returns a list.

24. Define module and package.

A module is a Python object having attributes with arbitrary names that you may bind to and refer to.

Simply put, a Python package is a directory of Python modules (s).

25. Why don’t lambda forms have statements?

This is so that a new function object can be created and returned at runtime using a lambda form. Additionally, statements that are nested inside of expressions cannot be handled by Python’s syntactic framework.

26. What is Flask?

The Python micro web framework Flask (source code) doesn’t need any particular tools or modules to function. It is utilised to integrate Python code into web applications.

27. When will you use the Python Decorator?

Python Decorator is a tool for easily changing the syntax of functions.

28. Python strings immutable or mutable?

Strings in Python are unchangeable. Ironically, it is a variable with a string value rather than a string.

29. What is a pass in Python?

Python’s no-operation statement is known as a pass. It implies that the operation pass is a null operation, meaning that it has no effect.

30. What is slicing?

Slicing is a method for methodically accessing a variety of elements from sequence types like list, tuple, strings, etc. that is computationally quick.

31. What is docstring?

Python’s documentation strings (docstrings) make it simple to describe its classes, modules, and methods.

32. How many kinds of sequences does Python support? Name them.

Seven sequence types

  • Str
  • List
  • Tuple
  • Unicode
  • byte array
  • xrange
  • buffer

33. How will you reload a Python module?

reload() is used to reload a previously imported module.

34. What is a set?

There are no duplicate elements in a Python set, which is an unordered collection of iterable and modifiable data.

35. Name some standard Python errors.

  • TypeError
  • ValueError
  • NameError
  • IOError
  • IndexError
  • KeyError

36. What is Tkinter?

Python’s de facto industry-standard GUI (Graphical User Interface) library is Tkinter.

37. What is multithreading?

Multithreading refers to the simultaneous execution of many programmes using different threads.

38. How to capitalize the first letter of string?

The capitalise() method is used to capitalise the first letter of the string. The original value will be returned if the string has already been capitalised.

39. Which python library is used for Machine learning?

Scikit-learn python Library is used for Machine learning.

40. What is the role of len() in python?

The software uses the function len() to determine the size of an array, list, and string.




41. How to delete a file in Python?

To delete any file, OS Module must be installed. The os.remove() function is used to delete a file once the module has been installed.

42. What are the built-in types of python?

Built-in types in Python are as follows –

  • Integers
  • Floating-point
  • Complex numbers
  • Strings
  • Boolean
  • Built-in functions

43. Write a code to convert a string into lowercase?

lower() is used to convert the string into lower case



Output: xyz

44. What is the output of the following code?

nameList = [‘Joe’, ‘Nick’, ‘Bob’, ‘Harry’]

print nameList[1][-1]



Reason: [-1] shows the last element or character of the string. In the above code, ]1] represents the second string and [-1] represents the last character of the second string, i.e., “k.”

45. Which databases are supported by Python?

Python is compatible with both MySQL (structured) and MongoDB (unstructured). To interface with the database, the modules first need to be loaded into the library.

46. What is the output of the following code?

demoCodes = [1, 2, 3, 4]


print len(demoCodes)

Output: 5

Reason: ‘append’ method is used in the code, which has to append the existing object into the list. But the append method does not merge the list, which is added as an element. So, the output will be’5’.

47. What is the use of the ‘#’ symbol in Python?

#’ symbol is used to symbolize the comments

48. Suppose a list1 is [2, 44, 191, 86], what would be the output for list1[-1]?

Output: 86

List1[-1] shows the last integer of the list

49. What is the maximum length of an identifier?

In Python, an identifier can have a maximum length of 79 characters.

50. Can you tell me the generator functions in Python?

It is quick, simple, and neat to declare a function that behaves like an iterator using generator functions.

51. Write a code to display the current time.

Here is the code to represent the current time:

import datetime

now = datetime.datetime.now()

print (“Current date and time : “)

print (now.stgftime(“%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S”))

52. Is Python a case-sensitive programming language?

Yes, it is a case-sensitive language like other languages such as Java, C, and C++

53. Write a code to sort a numerical list in Python.

To sort a numerical list, use the following code:

list = [“2”, “7”, “3”, “5”, “1”]

list = [int(i) for i in list]


print (list)

54. Write a code to display the contents of a file in reverse.

To reverse the content, use the following code:

for line in reversed(list(open(filename.txt))):


55. Explain the difference between a shallow copy and a deep copy.

In contrast to deep copy, which conducts the copying process in a loop and copies an item into other objects, shallow copy is used when a new instance is created and stores the copied values. Program execution is quicker on a shallow copy than on a deep copy.

56. How to add array elements in programming?

The functions append(), insert I y), and extend() let us to add elements to an array.

57. Which statement can we use if the statement is required syntactically, but no action is needed for the program?

When a statement is syntactically necessary but the programme doesn’t need to do anything, the pass statement is used.

58. What are the tools required to unit test your code?

The “unittest” Python standard library can be used to test units or classes. It is the simplest method for testing code, and the functionalities needed are the same as those of other unit testing tools like TestNG and JUnit.

59. How can you use ternary operators (Ternary) in Python?

Ternary operators are used to display conditional sentences. The true or false values make up this.

The ternary operator is indicated as:

[on_true] if [expression] else [on_false] x, y = 25, 50big = x if x <y else y

Example: The expression is evaluated as if x <and else and, in this case, if x <y is true, then the value is returned as big = x and if it is incorrect then big = y will be returned as a result.

60. What does this mean? * args, ** kwargs? Why would we use it?

When passing a function a list or tuple of saved arguments or when you are unsure of how many arguments to send, you should use the args keyword.

When passing keyword arguments to a function but are unsure of how many to provide, we use the **kwargs function, or we use it to pass the values from a dictionary

61. Does Python have OOps concepts?

An object-oriented programming language is Python. This implies that Python may be used to solve any programme and produce an object model. Python, however, is also a procedural and structural language.

62. What are compilation and linking process in Python?

In Python, binding and compilation allow new extensions to compile without any issues, and binding is only possible after a successful build. It depends on the system’s included style if dynamic loading is employed.

63. What is the map function in Python?

A function and an iterable are the two inputs for the map function, which applies the function to each iterable element. If the function in question takes more than one argument, numerous iterables are provided.

64. What is the difference between NumPy and SciPy?

Both NumPy and SciPy are modules of Python, and they are used for various operations of the data. NumPy stands for Numerical Python while SciPy stands for Scientific Python

65. What is PYTHONPATH?

It is utilised when importing a module and is an environment variable. Additionally, PYTHONPATH is utilised to determine whether imported modules are present in specific folders. It is used by the interpreter to choose which module to load.

66. Is indentation required in Python?

Python places a lot of emphasis on indentation. It designates a section of code. Within an indented block, all the code for classes, functions, loops, etc. is defined.

67. What is the Self in Python?

A self-described instance or object of a class in Python. It is mentioned specifically as the first argument. Local variables make it easier to distinguish between a class’s methods and attributes.

68. What are the iterators in Python?

Iterators in Python are objects used to iterate all the elements of a collection.

69. What is the Dogpile effect?

The Dogpile effect happens when a website’s cache expires and it receives a large number of simultaneous queries. This leads to a number of issues, such as enormous mistakes and increased significant lag. Dogpiles are avoided by using a strategy known as traffic light blocking.

70. Explain what is encapsulation?

Because Python is an object-oriented programming language, encapsulation is one of its defining features.

71. Does the Python language have a compiler?

Python clearly has a compiler, but it is very easy to miss. This is because it works automatically, you won’t even notice.

72. What is polymorphism in Python?

The capacity to take on different forms is known as polymorphism. For instance, if the parent class has a method called ABC, it indicates that the child class may also have a method with the same name. These have their own set of settings and variables. In Python, polymorphism is permitted.

73. How is data abstraction done in Python?

Data from a wider pool is chosen via abstraction to display only the details that are important to the item.

In conclusion, preparing for a Python interview requires a comprehensive understanding of various topics and concepts. By familiarizing yourself with the syntax, data types, control flow, functions, and modules, you lay a solid foundation for success. Additionally, having knowledge of object-oriented programming (OOP) principles, such as classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, and abstraction, will demonstrate your proficiency in writing efficient and modular code.

Python interview questions often delve into file handling, string manipulation, list comprehension, recursion, generators, decorators, and exception handling. Familiarity with popular libraries and frameworks like NumPy, Pandas, and Django is highly beneficial, showcasing your ability to leverage powerful tools for data analysis, manipulation, and web development.

Testing and debugging skills, memory management, and an understanding of threading and concurrency are additional areas that can set you apart. By being well-prepared and confident in discussing these topics, you increase your chances of impressing interviewers and securing a Python-related position.

Remember, while specific interview questions may vary, having a solid grasp of these key areas will allow you to tackle a wide range of Python interview questions effectively. Keep practicing, exploring real-world scenarios, and refining your problem-solving abilities to ace your Python interviews and embark on a successful programming career.

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