Agile Interview Questions and Answers: A Comprehensive Guide for Success

Agile Interview Questions

Agile Interview Questions and Answers: A Comprehensive Guide for Success


Table of Contents

What do you mean by Agile or Agile Methodology or Agile Process? 

As the name implies, Agile Methodology is a set of methods and practices used in software development and project management to create customer-centric solutions in short development cycles known as sprints. It is an iterative technique, and each iteration is specifically designed to be tiny and manageable in order to be delivered within a particular time frame. Agile approaches are adaptable to changing requirements and encourage continuous feedback from end users. It is the most common strategy since customers are included in the process so that they may receive product updates and ensure that they are meeting their requirements.


Agile Interview Questions and Answers 

What is an agile or agile methodology?

An agile methodology is a form of project management that emphasises flexibility and cooperation. It is based on the Agile Manifesto, a set of software development ideas and principles that stress adaptable planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement. Agile methods are iterative and incremental, allowing teams to adjust to change and deliver working products in a step-by-step fashion. Scrum, Kanban, and Scaled Agile Framework are some popular Agile frameworks (SAFe).


What are some quality strategies of agile?

Some popular quality strategies used in Agile software development include:

  • Continuous testing and integration, which ensures that new code does not interfere with current functionalities.
  • Pair programming, in which two developers work on the same code at the same time, can aid in bug detection and code quality.
  • Test-driven development, which involves writing tests before writing code, can assist guarantee that code satisfies requirements and is of high quality.
  • Regular retrospectives, in which the team comments on their work and identifies areas for improvement, can aid in the identification and resolution of quality concerns.
  • Acceptance Criteria, in which the team agrees on what defines “done” for a user story, can aid in ensuring that everyone on the team is working toward the same concept of quality.


What are an agile manifesto and its principle?

The Agile Manifesto is a collection of beliefs and ideas that guide Agile software development. It was created in 2001 by a group of software professionals to encourage a more flexible and collaborative approach to software development. The Agile Manifesto’s four core values are:

  • People and their interactions with processes and tools
  • Working software trumps extensive documentation.
  • Customer involvement in contract negotiations
  • Responding to change by sticking to a plan

The Agile Manifesto’s 12 principles are as follows:

  • Our first aim is to satisfy the customer by delivering valuable software on time and on a consistent basis.
  • Accept changing requirements, especially if they emerge late in the development process. Agile methods leverage change for the benefit of the customer’s competitive advantage.
  • Deliver working software on a regular basis, from a few weeks to a few months, with a preference for a shorter duration.
  • Throughout the project, businesspeople and developers must collaborate on a daily basis.
  • Build projects around motivated people. Give them the environment and support they require, and trust them to do the task.
  • Face-to-face communication is the most efficient and effective way of transmitting information to and within a development team.
  • The primary indicator of progress is functional software.
  • Agile processes foster long-term development. Sponsors, developers, and users should be able to keep up the pace indefinitely.
  • Continuous focus on technical excellence and smart design improves agility.
  • Simplicity, or the art of minimising the amount of work done, is critical.
  • Self-organizing teams produce the finest architectures, requirements, and designs.
  • The team reflects on how to become more effective at regular intervals, then tunes and adapts its behaviour accordingly.


Is there any disadvantage of the agile model (SDLC)?

Yes, there are some drawbacks to the Agile model. Among them are the following:

  • Lack of emphasis on planning and design: Because Agile emphasises rapid development and delivery, there may be a lack of emphasis on planning and design. In the long run, this might lead to a lack of architectural coherence and scalability.
  • Documentation is scarce: Agile prioritises working software above detailed documentation, which might make it difficult for new team members to grasp the system or for the team to maintain the codebase.
  • Difficult to manage changing requirements: Because Agile focuses on flexibility and adaptation, changing requirements can cause delays and disrupt the development process.
  • Agile involves a high level of collaboration and communication among team members, which can be difficult to achieve in some organisations.
  • Not suited for all projects: Agile may not be ideal for all projects, particularly those that are tightly regulated or require a high degree of predictability.


What are the burn-up and burn-down chart?

  • Burn-up and burn-down charts are frequently used in Agile software development to track project progress.
  • A burn-up chart displays the overall amount of work performed as well as the total amount of work that remains to be done over time. It is used to track a project’s progress by displaying how much work has been performed and how much remains to be done.
  • A burn-down chart, on the other hand, displays how much work has been performed over time as well as how much work remains to be done. It is used to track a project’s progress by displaying how quickly work is finished and how much work remains to be done.
  • Although both burn-up and burn-down charts are valuable for assessing the progress of an Agile project, they offer slightly different perspectives on the same data.


What do you understand by Daily Stand-Up?

A daily stand-up, also known as a daily scrum or daily huddle, is a daily meeting in Agile development approaches, most commonly Scrum. The meeting’s objective is for team members to swiftly convey what they completed the previous day, what they want to concentrate on today, and whether any difficulties need to be addressed. The meeting is normally held at the same time and place every day, and it lasts no more than 15 minutes. The purpose is to keep the team engaged, aligned, and on track to achieve their sprint objectives.


What do you understand about Scrum?

Scrum is an Agile project management and completion framework. It is a technique that enables teams to collaborate in order to deliver a product or service. Scrum is defined by a set of roles, events, and artefacts. Scrum’s primary roles are Scrum Master, Product Owner, and Development Team. Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective are the four primary events in Scrum. Scrum’s primary artefacts are the Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, and Increment. Scrum’s purpose is to produce working software progressively and to use an inspection and adaption process to continuously improve the process and the output.


What are the different roles in Scrum?

The Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team are the three key roles in Scrum. The Product Owner is in charge of defining and prioritising the product’s features and requirements. The Scrum Master is in charge of facilitating the Scrum process and ensuring that the team follows the Scrum framework. The Development Team is in charge of creating and delivering the product.


What are the responsibilities of the Scrum Master?

The Scrum Master is in charge of guiding the Scrum process and ensuring that the team follows Scrum ideals, practises, and regulations. Facilitating Scrum ceremonies such as Sprint Planning, Daily Scrums, Sprint Reviews, and Sprint Retrospectives is part of this. The Scrum Master also assists the team in removing any hurdles that may be impeding their progress toward their goals and serves as a bridge between the team and stakeholders. The Scrum Master is also in charge of fostering and sustaining a culture of continuous improvement within the team.


What are different ceremonies and their importance in Scrum?

  • Several ceremonies or meetings are held in Scrum to ensure the smooth operation of the project. They are as follows:
  • Sprint Planning: This meeting is done at the start of each sprint to plan and decide the sprint’s goals and objectives.
  • Daily Scrum: Also known as a “stand-up,” this is a daily meeting in which team members provide a brief report on their progress and any problems they are encountering.
  • Sprint Review: This is held at the end of each sprint and is when the team shows off their work and receives feedback from stakeholders.
  • Sprint Retrospective: This meeting is held to reflect on the previous sprint, identify areas for improvement, and plan improvements to be implemented in the following sprint.
  • Each of these rituals is critical to the efficient and effective execution of a Scrum project. The sprint planning meeting establishes clear team objectives, the daily scrum keeps everyone on track, the sprint review provides feedback and modifications, and the retrospective enables for ongoing improvement.


What do you know about Scrum ban?

  • Scrum ban is an uncommon word in the context of Agile software development. There is no concept of a “ban” in Scrum, a framework for managing and completing complicated projects. Instead, certain processes and responsibilities, such as the Scrum Master, Product Owner, and Development Team, are followed.
  • If you’re wondering about the Scrum framework, it’s an Agile technique that values collaboration, accountability, and incremental progress. It is intended to assist teams in collaborating to deliver a product or service in an unpredictable or fast changing environment. Sprints are short, time-boxed intervals in which a potentially releasable product increment is developed. To check and adjust their work, the team holds daily Scrum meetings, Sprint Planning, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective.
  • It’s probable you’re inquiring about “Scrum burnout,” which is a term used to describe the feelings of tiredness and disenchantment that can result from working in a high-stress, high-intensity Scrum environment for an extended period of time. This might occur when the team is continually under pressure to deliver and the team members feel powerless over their task. To avoid this, team members must take care of their physical and mental well-being, as well as maintain a healthy work-life balance.


What do you understand by the term agile testing?

Agile testing is a software testing approach that adheres to agile software development concepts. Agile testing entails testing frequently and frequently, with a focus on collaboration among developers, testers, and stakeholders. Throughout the development process, it promotes flexibility and the capacity to adapt to changing requirements. Agile testing is typically carried out in short sprints or iterations, with frequent testing and feedback to verify that the product satisfies the needs of the consumers.


What are the major principles of agile testing?

The following are the key principles of agile testing:

  • Continuous testing is performed throughout the development process.
  • Development and testing teams working together
  • The importance of frequent and timely feedback
  • Adaptability and adaptability to changing conditions
  • Testing must be included into the overall development process.
  • Cross-functional teams should conduct testing.


What are the skills of a good agile tester?

A good agile tester should possess the following abilities:

  • Solid understanding of software testing approaches and principles
  • Knowledge of agile development techniques
  • Strong communication and cooperation abilities are required for efficient collaboration with cross-functional teams.
  • Strong problem-solving skills and the ability to think creatively are required in order to adapt and be adaptable in a fast changing environment.
  • Strong attention to detail and the ability to detect and report flaws
  • familiarity with testing tools and automation
  • Strong domain knowledge in the area of the application being tested Strong awareness of the business objectives and goals of the project Strong analytical and logical thinking abilities to create and execute test cases.


Name the agile frameworks.

There are various Agile frameworks, the most popular of which are:

  • Scrum
  • Kanban
  • Lean
  • Crystal
  • Extreme Programming (XP)
  • Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
  • Feature-Driven Development (FDD)
  • Adaptive Software Development (ASD)
  • Agile Unified Process (AUP)
  • Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)


Is it ever suggested to use waterfall over Scrum? If yes, explain when.

Agile approaches, such as Scrum, are generally chosen over Waterfall methodologies for software development projects because they allow for greater flexibility and adaptive planning. However, in other cases, a Waterfall approach may be more suited. A Waterfall approach, for example, may be more appropriate if the project has well-defined, unchanging criteria and a clear end objective since it allows for more precise planning and a linear progression through the project phases. A Waterfall technique may also be mandated by law or regulations if the project is extensively regulated, such as in the defence or healthcare industries.


Name some methodologies and development where you have used the agile model.

Agile is a project management and product development methodology that places a premium on flexibility, collaboration, and customer satisfaction. Scrum, Kanban, and Scaled Agile Framework are examples of agile approaches (SAFe). Agile development is frequently utilised in software development and IT projects, but it may be applied to other types of projects as well. Agile approaches place a premium on customer satisfaction, rapid iterations, and adaptability to change. Agile development is frequently utilised by cross-functional teams comprised of developers, designers, and stakeholders in order to provide high-quality products and services on schedule.


What was the length of sprints/iterations in your project?

Sprints or iterations in Agile development are typically two to four weeks long, with two weeks being the most frequent length. This enables for a consistent rhythm of progress and a continual flow of useful product increments. It’s worth mentioning that depending on their demands, some teams prefer shorter or longer sprints, and these lengths can be altered as needed.


What is the difference between the agile & traditional way of working?

The Agile method of working prioritises people and relationships, problem solving, and customer collaboration over processes and tools. It is a method of developing software that is iterative and incremental. The conventional technique, often known as the Waterfall method, is a linear, sequential approach to software development. The Waterfall method emphasises a tight plan and timetable, with a distinct beginning and end point for each project phase. The Agile technique is more adaptable, allowing for changes and adjustments throughout the project, whereas the Waterfall method is more inflexible, making alterations harder to apply once a specific phase has been completed.


Why does Scrum encourage the use of automated testing for projects?

Scrum promotes the use of automated testing since it helps to guarantee that the software being built fits the requirements and functions properly. Automated tests can be run rapidly and frequently, providing immediate feedback on the code’s quality. This enables the development team to detect and correct flaws early in the development process, lowering overall development costs and enhancing software quality. Furthermore, as a prerequisite for a code review, automated tests may be quickly run and passed, providing confidence in the code changes. Additionally, automated testing allows the development team to refactor code with less risk and enables continuous integration and deployment.


What are different types of Agile Methodology

  • Scrum, Kanban, Lean, and Extreme Programming are just a few examples of Agile methodologies (XP). Each methodology has its own distinct approach and set of ideas, but they all have a similar emphasis on flexibility, cooperation, and quick iteration.
  • Scrum is a project management methodology that is frequently used to manage and complete complicated projects. It is founded on the ideas of openness, scrutiny, and adaptation.
  • Kanban is a work-flow paradigm that emphasises visualising work and restricting work in progress. It is frequently used to improve efficiency and decrease waste in manufacturing and software development.
  • Lean is a methodology based on the Toyota Production System principles. It is concerned with reducing waste and increasing value.
  • Extreme Programming (XP) is a technique that focuses on providing working software in a timely and continuous manner by utilising approaches such as test-driven development and pair programming.
  • Each methodology has its own distinct approach and set of ideas, but they all have a similar emphasis on flexibility, cooperation, and quick iteration.


What are advantages and disadvantages of Agile Process.

The following are some of the benefits of the Agile Process:

  • Changeableness and adaptability
  • Faster release of functional software
  • Increased team member participation and communication Greater transparency and visibility within the development process
  • Better alignment of development and business objectives

The following are some of the disadvantages of the Agile Process:

  • Difficulties in designing and managing large, complex projects.
  • The possibility of scope creep and insufficient requirements management
  • Miscommunication and misunderstandings among team members are possible.
  • There is a lesser emphasis on long-term planning and recordkeeping.
  • If the requirements change, there is a greater chance of rework.


What do you mean by refactoring?

  • Refactoring is the technique of updating existing code to better its internal structure and organisation without changing its external behaviour in Agile software development. Renaming variables, removing methods, and restructuring classes and modules are examples of such chores. The purpose of refactoring is to make the code more maintainable, understandable, and bug-free.
  • Refactoring is a crucial approach in Agile development because it allows teams to continuously update the codebase when new features and bugs are added. By rewriting the code on a regular basis, teams can avoid building technical debt and ensuring that the code remains simple to comprehend and edit.
  • Refactoring also aids in identifying portions of code that may be difficult to test or prone to problems, as well as making modifications that make the code more testable and error-prone.
  • Refactoring is a continuous procedure that can be performed at any time by developers or code reviewers. It is also important to practise following before introducing new features, since this ensures that the new features are included into a maintainable and clean codebase.


What’s the difference between sprint backlog and product backlog?

In a Scrum project, a sprint backlog is a list of tasks that a development team commits to accomplishing during the forthcoming sprint. It’s a subset of the product backlog, which is a prioritised list of all the tasks that must be completed on a project. The product backlog includes a diverse set of items such as features, problem fixes, and technical debt. In contrast, the sprint backlog focuses on the precise things that the team will work on during the sprint. The product owner is in charge of the product backlog, whereas the development team is in charge of the sprint backlog.


What is Spike and Zero Sprint in Agile?

Spike and Zero Sprint are Agile software development terminology. A Spike is a time-limited period of research or experimentation used to get a better understanding of an issue or to investigate potential solutions. A Spike’s purpose is to eliminate ambiguity and boost the team’s confidence in their ability to deliver a solution. A Zero Sprint is a sprint that has no deliverables and is used to undertake activities such as planning, design, and knowledge sharing that are required for the team to prepare for the following sprint. The Zero Sprint team can engage in activities such as Sprint Retrospective, Planning, grooming, knowledge exchange, and so on.


What do you mean by the term “velocity” in Agile?

Velocity in Agile development refers to the quantity of work that a team can complete in a given length of time, which is commonly quantified in story points. It is used to forecast how much work a team can perform in the future, as well as to assist teams in planning and managing their workload. Teams can detect trends and patterns in their work by analysing velocity over time, which can help them make adjustments to increase their efficiency and productivity. To provide a more full picture of a team’s success, velocity is frequently used in conjunction with other Agile metrics such as burndown charts.


What is Incremental and Iterative Development?

Incremental development is a software development process that divides a project into smaller portions that are developed, tested, and delivered independently. As each increment builds on the preceding one, this enables for a more flexible and responsive response to changes in requirements or design.

Iterative development is a method of software development in which the project is developed in numerous cycles, or iterations, with each iteration building on the preceding one. As each iteration gives input for the next, this allows for a more flexible and responsive approach to changes in requirements or design.

Both incremental and iterative development follow the philosophy of making minor, regular modifications to software rather than attempting to offer a complete, perfect solution all at once. This enables a more adaptable and responsive approach to changes in needs or design, which can result in a better final product.


What is a Product Roadmap?

A product roadmap is a high-level, visual representation of a product’s planned development across time in an Agile development process. It describes the product’s broad aims and objectives, as well as the main features and milestones that will be delivered during each iteration or sprint. The roadmap isn’t a precise plan, but it helps the team comprehend the big picture and the product’s overall direction. It is adaptable and may evolve as the product develops and new information becomes available.


What are different project management tools that are mostly used in Agile?

Some common project management tools used in Agile software development include:

  • Atlassian created Jira, which is extensively used for agile project management, issue tracking, and bug tracking.
  • Trello: This web-based project management and communication solution use a Kanban-style board to assist teams in visualising their workflow.
  • Asana: This is a web- and mobile-based programme for team communication. It enables users to organise, track, and manage projects and tasks.
  • Basecamp is a web-based project management and team collaboration platform that lets users manage projects, connect with team members, and store and share information.
  • Monday.com: This web-based project management and team collaboration platform enables users to monitor tasks, manage workflow, and engage with team members.
  • Scrumwise: This tool is a simple and adaptable Scrum project management solution that includes features such as a product backlog, sprint backlog, burndown chart, and more.
  • Clubhouse: This tool is a web-based project management solution created exclusively for Agile software development teams.
  • These are just a few of the popular tools; there are many more available that are used by various organisations depending on their needs and project size.


What is the difference between Agile and Scrum?

Agile is a software development methodology that emphasises agility and client collaboration. Scrum is a methodology for managing software development projects that is based on Agile concepts. In other words, Scrum is a specific Agile implementation.


What do you mean by Pair Programming? Write its advantages.

Pair programming is a software development technique in which two programmers collaborate at the same computer. One programmer writes code, while the other checks each line as it is entered. The two programmers frequently trade duties.

The following are some of the benefits of pair programming:

  • Better code quality: Two heads are better than one, and having a collaborator examine your code can help you identify problems and enhance design.
  • Pair programming can lead to speedier development because the two programmers can collaborate to solve difficulties and brainstorm solutions.
  • Knowledge sharing: Pair programming can be an excellent technique for team members to share knowledge and abilities.
  • Increased teamwork and communication: Because team members are working closely together on a common goal, pair programming can increase teamwork and communication.
  • Knowledge retention: Because developers will have a better understanding of the code they are working on, pair programming can aid enhance knowledge retention and understanding of the code base.


What is “Planning Poker” technique?

A consensus-based technique known as “Planning Poker” is used to estimate the relative effort or complexity of jobs in a software development project. The technique is frequently employed in the agile development framework Scrum. Team members are each handed a deck of cards with numbers representing the relative effort necessary to execute a job during a Planning Poker session. Each team member chooses a card that best depicts their estimate in private, and then all cards are revealed at the same time. Estimation differences are discussed and resolved through discussion and negotiation. The goal is to reach a consensus estimate that everyone on the team is comfortable with.


What is a Sprint Planning Meeting, Sprint Review Meeting and Sprint Retrospective Meeting?

A Sprint Planning Meeting is a meeting in Agile software development when the team sets out the work that will be performed during the upcoming sprint. This usually entails discussing and deciding on the Sprint Goal, selecting the user stories that will be worked on, and calculating the time required to finish them.

A Sprint Review Meeting is a meeting in which the team shows stakeholders the work performed during the sprint and seeks comments on it.

A Sprint Retrospective Meeting is a meeting in which the team examines the previous sprint and what went well, what did not go well, and what can be improved in the upcoming sprint. In addition, the team identifies and prioritises measures to improve their performance.


What do you mean by the term “increment”?

An increment is a set of new or upgraded features added to a product at the end of a sprint in Agile software development (a time-boxed period of typically 2-4 weeks during which a specific set of work is completed and made ready for review). The increment is the outcome of the development team’s efforts throughout the sprint, and it should be a useable and releasable version of the product that provides value to the overall product. The increments are constructed on top of each other, with each sprint adding new feature and refining current functionality until the product is finished or the project is cancelled.


What are standard or common metrics for Agile? Explain.

Metrics commonly used in Agile development include:

  • Velocity: A team’s rate of completion of work, measured in story points each sprint.
  • Sprint burndown: A graph that depicts the amount of work remaining in a sprint over time. It assists teams in tracking progress and identifying potential concerns.
  • Cumulative flow: A graph that depicts the quantity of things in each stage of the workflow (e.g., to do, in process, and completed) over time. It can assist teams in identifying bottlenecks in their processes.
  • Lead time: The time it takes for a feature to be requested and deployed.
  • Cycle time: The amount of time it takes for a feature to progress from start to finish.
  • Defect density: The number of defects per unit of code used to assess code quality.
  • Net Promoter Score (NPS): A customer satisfaction metric used to assess the success of a product or service.
  • Return on Investment (ROI): A financial performance measure used to evaluate the success of a project.
  • These metrics are used to assess the performance of the team, identify areas for improvement, and make data-driven decisions.


In this comprehensive interview guide, we have covered a wide range of Agile interview questions and provided detailed answers to help you prepare for your Agile interviews. These questions cover various aspects of Agile methodology, including Agile principles, Scrum framework, Agile ceremonies, Agile roles, and Agile project management.

Agile methodology has become a popular approach for software development and project management, emphasizing flexibility, collaboration, and iterative delivery. By familiarizing yourself with the interview questions and answers in this guide, you can demonstrate your knowledge and expertise in Agile practices and showcase your ability to drive successful Agile projects.


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