Mastering the Scrum: Interview Questions and Answers for Scrum Masters


Mastering the Scrum: Interview Questions and Answers for Scrum Masters


Table of Contents

An Overview of the Scrum Framework

Scrum is a collaborative framework for agile teams. Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland co-created the Scrum framework in the early 1990s to assist businesses dealing with complex development projects. It can be used by team members to deliver and maintain the complex product. It encourages the team to self-organize and learn via practise while working on the challenge. Scrum is a project that uses the framework and provides value to clients on a regular basis.

It is the software that the development team uses the most. Its concepts and teachings can be applied to any sort of teamwork. The popularity of the Scrum framework originates from its policies and experiences. Scrum is a collection of tools, meetings, and roles that allow teams to organise themselves. It also oversees the work of the team.


Scrum Master Interview Questions for Freshers 



What are the different roles in Scrum?

The Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team are the three key roles in Scrum. The Product Owner is in charge of managing the product backlog and ensuring that the development team works on the most important issues. The Scrum Master serves as a facilitator and coach for the team, assisting in the removal of any impediments to development. The Development Team is in charge of creating and delivering the product.


What do you mean by Agile?

Agile project management is a method that emphasises flexibility and cooperation. It is most commonly used in software development, but it may be utilised on any project. Agile stresses iterative and incremental delivery, flexible planning, and adaptability. It encourages frequent product and process inspection and adaption. Agile approaches like as Scrum and Kanban are often utilised to put the Agile strategy into practise. Agile focuses on providing a potentially releasable product increment in each sprint and enables stakeholders and development teams to collaborate and make decisions.


What do you mean by Sprint in Scrum?

A sprint in Scrum is a time-boxed period of 1-4 weeks in which a particular, quantifiable set of work is completed and ready for review. The sprint is an essential component of the Scrum methodology and the core unit of development in Scrum. The development team commits to finishing a set of product backlog items chosen by the product owner during a sprint. The sprint’s purpose is to produce a workable and potentially releasable product increment. The team conducts a sprint review and retrospective at the conclusion of the sprint to check and change the product and process.


What are the five Scrum values?

Commitment, focus, openness, respect, and courage are the five Scrum values.



What are the three pillars of Scrum?

Scrum’s three pillars are transparency, inspection, and adaptation.


What do you mean by user stories in Scrum? What are the advantages of using them?

A user story in Scrum is a description of a specific feature or piece of functionality from the standpoint of an end user or customer. User stories are written in a simple, non-technical format to communicate the desired outcome of a piece of work 

The following are some of the benefits of adopting user stories in Scrum:

They give the development team a clear and succinct approach to comprehend the needs of a certain piece of work.

They make work easier to prioritise because the development team can focus on providing the most critical user stories first.

They aid in the collaboration of the development team and stakeholders since user stories may be used to spark dialogues and obtain feedback.

They encourage flexibility by allowing user stories to be easily reprioritized or deleted from the backlog if requirements change.

They are simple to understand for non-technical stakeholders and are useful for keeping everyone focused on the project’s objectives.


Who is responsible for writing User Story?

User stories are often written by the product owner in Scrum. The product owner represents the stakeholders’ interests and is in charge of managing the product backlog, which is a prioritised list of user stories and other work items that must be completed in order to deliver a valuable product.

The product owner is in charge of ensuring that the user stories in the backlog are clear, concise, and well-defined, and that they are aligned with the project’s overarching goals. They must also collaborate with the development team to ensure that the user stories are understood and efficiently implemented.

Although the product owner is largely responsible for writing the user stories, other team members, such as users, stakeholders, and the development team itself, can also contribute. They will help to clarify and detail the user stories, making them more actionable for the development team.


Explain user story structure with an example.

A user story has a defined format that comprises the following elements:

As a [role], I want [goal or need] so that [benefit].

As an example:

As a frequent online shopper, I’d like to be able to limit search results by price range so that I can quickly identify things that are within my price range.

The role in this example is “regular online shopper,” the aim or requirement is “the ability to limit search results by price range,” and the benefit is “I can easily identify things that fit within my budget.”

This framework ensures that user stories are clear and easy to comprehend, and that they fit with the end user’s demands and goals.

Another example: As a bank customer, I’d like to be able to check my account balance using a mobile app so that I can manage my money while I’m on the road.

The role in this example is “bank customer,” the goal or requirement is “to be able to check my account balance using a mobile app,” and the benefit is “I can manage my finances on the go.”

This style assists the development team in understanding the user’s needs, goals, and the anticipated advantages of the functionality they are developing.


Is Scrum and Agile the same? If not so, differentiate between them.

Agile and Scrum are not the same thing, yet they are linked.

Scrum is a project management framework that is based on the Agile approach. Agile is a project management and product development methodology that stresses flexibility, collaboration, and client satisfaction.

Scrum emphasises the delivery of working software in small, incremental cycles known as sprints. It consists of roles like Scrum Master, Product Owner, and Development Team, as well as ceremonies like Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective.

In contrast, agile is a broader mindset that promotes adaptability, cooperation, and customer happiness. Agile can be applied in a variety of ways, and Scrum is only one of several frameworks that can be used to do so. Kanban and Lean are two further Agile framework examples.

In short, Scrum is a technique founded on Agile concepts. Agile is a concept or attitude that may be applied in several ways, and Scrum is one of them.


What are the roles of a Scrum Master?

The Scrum Master serves as a facilitator for the Scrum team, ensuring that the team follows Scrum values, practises, and standards. A Scrum Master’s primary tasks and responsibilities are as follows:

Facilitation: The Scrum Master facilitates the Scrum meetings, ceremonies, and procedures. Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective are all part of this process.

Impediments Removal: The Scrum Master assists the team in identifying and removing any barriers that are impeding the team from accomplishing its goals.

The Scrum Master coaches the team on Scrum methods, assisting the team in improving and becoming more productive.

The Scrum Master acts as a servant leader for the team, assisting it in achieving its objectives and continuously improving.

The Scrum Master helps the team stay focused on producing value by shielding it from outside interference and distractions.

Promoting Scrum: The Scrum Master helps people understand and use the Scrum paradigm by promoting Scrum throughout the company.

Assistance with Scaling: The Scrum Master aids the company in scaling Scrum to numerous teams and projects, ensuring that the teams can collaborate successfully.

Empowerment: While ensuring that the team abides by the Scrum values, practises, and regulations, the Scrum Master empowers the team to self-organize and make decisions.


How can you assure that the user stories meet the requirements?

The Product Owner in Scrum is in charge of making sure that the user stories adhere to the requirements and the overall product vision. The Scrum Master, however, can assist in making sure that the user stories adhere to the requirements. Here are several methods the Scrum Master can use to do this:

Facilitate Backlog Refinement: The Scrum Master can lead Backlog Refinement sessions where the team and Product Owner work together to examine, define, and rank the user stories. The team may make sure the user stories are well-defined, tested, and conform to the requirements during these meetings.

Encourage Cooperation: To make sure that the team has a thorough understanding of the requirements and is able to offer feedback on the user stories, the Scrum Master can encourage collaboration between the team and the Product Owner.

Promote the use of acceptance criteria: The Scrum Master can encourage the use of user story acceptance criteria, which are precise, quantifiable, and verifiable requirements that a user story must satisfy to be deemed “done.” This makes it easier to make sure that the team is aware of the specifications and that the user stories can be tested.

The Scrum Master can assist with prioritisation by working with the Product Owner and the team to rank the user stories and make sure that the most crucial needs are taken care of first.

Empower the Team: While ensuring that the team abides by the Scrum values, principles, and regulations, the Scrum Master can enable the team to self-organize and make decisions.

Help with Continuous Improvement: By performing retrospectives and obtaining input from the team and stakeholders, the Scrum Master may assist with the process’s ongoing improvement. 

The Scrum Master can help to guarantee that the user stories adhere to the requirements and that the team is producing a product that satisfies the expectations of the customer by following these procedures.


Why are the user stories not estimated in man hours?

Because user stories are a technique to describe desired functionality from the customer’s perspective rather than in terms of the time it would take to develop it, they are not often estimated in man hours in Scrum. Instead than focusing on how long a work will take to complete, the goal is to provide value to the customer. Additionally, rather than attempting to predict the precise amount of time it will take to complete a story, Scrum teams employ relative estimating approaches like planning poker, which entail comparing the relative sizes of one user story to another. This makes it possible for estimates to be more precise and reliable while also assisting in avoiding the usual mistakes of conventional time-based estimating.


What do you mean by Artifacts in Scrum?

The physical, observable components that the Scrum team utilises to manage their work are referred to as artefacts in Scrum. The Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, and Increment are the three primary artefacts in Scrum. A prioritised collection of specifications for the good or service being developed is called the product backlog. The Product Backlog items that the team pledges to complete during the forthcoming sprint are listed on the Sprint Backlog. The total of all product backlog items finished during a sprint plus the total of all prior sprints’ increments equals the increment. These artefacts are used to make sure that the team is open with stakeholders, accountable to them, and that the product is being improved on a regular basis.


What are the five steps of Risk Management?

Scrum’s five risk management steps are as follows:

  • Identify the risks: Make a list of all the dangers that might have an impact on the project.
  • Analyze the risks: Consider each one’s likelihood and possible effects.
  • Give the risks a priority: Determine which hazards are the most important and need to be addressed right away.
  • Make a risk response strategy: Create a strategy to reduce, accept, or avoid each risk.

Keep an eye on and manage risks: Review and update the risk response plan frequently, and monitor how the project is progressing with regard to the identified risks.


What do you mean by timeboxing in Scrum? When can a Sprint be cancelled and by whom?

In Scrum, timeboxing is the process of allocating a predetermined period of time for each iteration, or “Sprint,” during which a certain set of activities or objectives must be accomplished. This aids in keeping the development process on track and focused.

If it becomes clear that the Sprint Goal is no longer feasible, a Sprint may be cancelled. The Scrum Team, which consists of the Product Owner, Development Team, and Scrum Master, can make this choice. If the Scrum Team decides that continuing with the current Sprint would be a waste of resources and that it would be better to start a new Sprint and reassess the product backlog, the Sprint may also be cancelled.


How are Epic, User Story and Tasks different from one another in the context of Scrum?

An epic in Scrum is a huge user story that symbolises a substantial amount of work that needs to be divided into smaller, more manageable stories. An outline of a feature or functionality that a user needs or wants is known as a “user narrative.” A task is a specific assignment that must be carried out in order to finish a user story. While user stories are more specific and thorough than epics, tasks are the most specific and granular level of work. Epics are high-level. User stories and tasks are normally finished in a sprint, whereas epics are typically worked on over a longer period of time.


Who all can be the participants in the retrospective meeting?

The Scrum Master, the Development Team (i.e., the team in charge of providing the product or service), and the Product Owner are normally present in a Scrum retrospective meeting (i.e. the person responsible for representing the stakeholders and ensuring that the Development Team is building the right product). If considered necessary, additional stakeholders may also be invited to participate.


What do you mean by Sprint 0 and Spike?

Sprint 0 is a sprint that is frequently used at the start of a project to identify the overarching goals and objectives, construct a high-level plan, and establish the initial product backlog. It is also referred to as a “planning sprint.” Setting the team up for success by developing a shared understanding of what needs to be accomplished and how it will be done is the key objective of Sprint 0.

An experimenting or study phase with a set time limit known as a “Spike” is used to learn more about a certain area of the project. In order to improve collaborative decision-making, spikes are used to explore choices, provide answers to questions, or test presumptions. They are not included in the traditional sprint cycle because they are often shorter than a sprint.


Differentiate between Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog.

A prioritized list of features or needs for a product or project is known as the Product Backlog in Scrum. It symbolizes the work that has to be done to provide value to the customer and is owned and maintained by the product owner. The Product Backlog is dynamic and subject to change as new information or priorities are determined.

The work that the development team commits to finishing during the forthcoming sprint is represented by the Sprint Backlog, which is a subset of the Product Backlog. The development team created and maintains the Sprint Backlog, which is a plan for the sprint. It is used to track progress and spot any problems that need to be fixed. It represents the team’s understanding of the work they will complete during the sprint.

In conclusion, the Sprint Backlog is a schedule for the work that the development team commits to complete during the upcoming sprint, whereas the Product Backlog is a prioritised list of features or requirements that represents the work that has to be done.


What do you mean by DoD?

The Definition of Done (DoD) in Scrum is a consensus view of what makes up a “done” product increment. The DoD is used to make sure that every Scrum team member is aware of the requirements that must be fulfilled for a product increment to be deemed finished and prepared for release. It usually consists of a list of requirements that must be fulfilled in order for a product increment to be deemed complete. The Scrum team approves the DoD, which could be revised as the project advances. It is a crucial tool for ensuring that the team as a whole is working toward a common objective and that the finished product satisfies the objectives of the client.


What is the purpose of a Scrum Master to be present at the Daily Scrum?

A Scrum Master’s presence at the Daily Scrum is intended to facilitate the meeting and make sure it follows the Scrum methodology. This includes making sure that the team stays on task and within the allotted time, and that any challenges or problems are quickly recognised and resolved. The Scrum Master can also assist the team in prioritising tasks for the forthcoming sprint and ensuring that they are collaborating well to achieve the sprint objectives.


What do you mean by ‘Confidence Vote’ in Scrum? Why is it important?

The Development Team uses a “confidence vote” in Scrum to express their belief in the Sprint Goal and their capacity to deliver the anticipated Increment. The Development Team can use it to demonstrate how committed they are to completing the Sprint Goal and delivering the anticipated Increment.

The “confidence vote” that takes place during the Sprint Review is crucial for the Scrum Master to facilitate since it gives information about the Development Team’s comprehension of the work that needs to be done and their capacity to finish it within the constraints of the sprint. It may be a sign that the sprint objective is unattainable or that the team needs more support if the development team lacks confidence in their ability to complete it. The Scrum Master should consider this data carefully in order to support the Development Team’s success.


Scrum Master Interview Questions for Experienced 


What do you mean by Scrum of Scrums?

Multiple Scrum teams working on a big, complicated project or product can coordinate and communicate using the Scrum of Scrums (SoS) technique. Teams can use it to exchange information, recognise dependencies, and address any problems that affect numerous teams at once. Representatives from each Scrum team often participate in the SoS meetings, which are held on a regular basis to review progress, exchange information, and identify and resolve dependencies. This helps to avoid delays and guarantee that the project is delivered on schedule and at a high standard by ensuring that all teams are informed of what the other teams are doing and can plan accordingly.


Differentiate between MVP and MMR.

A new product or feature is released with just enough features to appease early adopters and collect insightful feedback for further development, according to the MVP (Minimum Viable Product) development approach. It is a quick technique to assess consumer demand and get feedback.

Similar to MVP, MMR (Minimum Marketable Release) focuses on the bare minimum of functionality that must be present in a product release in order to earn revenue or achieve other business goals. The primary distinction between the two is that while MMR focuses on attaining particular business objectives, MVP is more concerned with testing and obtaining feedback.

The Scrum Master’s duties include assisting the process and making sure the team adheres to the Scrum methodology. They may assist the team in prioritising and delivering the MVP or MMR for a product within the sprints after collaborating with the product owner to define what it should be.


What are the three C’s in an User Story?

In Scrum, the three C’s of a user story are:

Card: Typically, a user narrative is written on an index card or sticky note to act as a reminder of the story’s details and to make it succinct.

Conversation: A user narrative should be crafted in such a way that it initiates a discussion about the feature or requirement that it represents. The product owner, the development team, and other stakeholders should all be present for this discussion.

Confirmation: A user story should be written in such a way that it can be marked complete after the feature or requirement it represents has been implemented. This is usually accomplished through acceptability testing.


How will a Scrum Master prevent extreme weariness induced due to retrospectives?

A Scrum Master can avoid the excessive fatigue caused by retrospectives by using the following best practises:

  • Keep your retrospectives brief: Limit the retrospective to 30 minutes to an hour in length.
  • Rotate the facilitator role: To avoid burnout, allow team members to take turns facilitating the retrospective.
  • Encourage participation: During the retrospective, encourage all team members to participate and offer their thoughts and ideas.
  • Be creative: A variety of retrospective formats, such as “Start, Stop, Continue,” “Mad, Sad, Glad,” or “What Went Well, What Didn’t, and What Can We Improve,” can be used.
  • Follow up on action items: Ensure that the team takes action on the suggestions for improvement and action items made during the retrospective.
  • Break: If the team is feeling fatigued, take a break and postpone the retrospective for a few sprints.
  • Celebrate team accomplishments: During retrospectives, take some time to recognise the team’s accomplishments.
  • To maintain the retrospective’s focus: Avoid bringing up topics that are unrelated to the current sprint and keep your attention on it.


The Agile methodology emphasises the importance of “People Over Processes.” Is the Scrum Master’s responsibility of enforcing “the process” a contradiction?

It is not contradictory for the Scrum Master to emphasise “people over processes” while yet enforcing “the procedure.” According to the Agile methodology’s foundational tenets of flexibility and adaptability, the process should be customised to the team’s requirements and should be continuously enhanced based on input. In addition to facilitating the process and making sure it is being followed, the Scrum Master’s job is to support the team’s needs and try to ensure that the process benefits the team rather than the other way around.


How will the Scrum Master make sure that the team delivers action items on time?

By fostering efficient planning and communication within the team, removing any barriers that might stand in the way of progress, and routinely reviewing and modifying the team’s procedures as necessary, the Scrum Master can make sure that the team delivers action items on time. The Scrum Master can also make sure that the team has the appropriate tools and training to complete the action items. As well as holding team members accountable for fulfilling deadlines, they can assist the team in setting clear goals and priorities.


What do you mean by Velocity in the context of Scrum? Does having maximum Velocity ensure maximum Productivity?

The quantity of work a team can finish in a sprint, which is commonly quantified in story points, is referred to as velocity in the context of Scrum. It is used to monitor the team’s progress over time and forecast how much work they will be able to finish in upcoming sprints.

High Velocity is not always a guarantee of maximum production because there are many variables that might influence how well a team performs. A team’s capacity to accomplish tasks effectively can be impacted by a variety of variables, including team morale, communication, and skill level. Furthermore, concentrating only on accelerating Velocity may cause you to overlook other crucial components of software development, such quality and maintainability. Therefore, in order to ensure overall productivity, it is crucial for a Scrum Master to strike a balance between the objective of boosting Velocity and other crucial factors.


How can a Scrum Master ensure that the three pillars of Scrum are being implemented by the team?

By doing the following, a Scrum Master can make sure that the team is adhering to the three pillars of Scrum (transparency, inspection, and adaptation): promoting open dialogue, frequent status updates, facilitating daily Scrum meetings, and sprint retrospectives are all ways to promote transparency. encouraging the team to routinely examine and reflect on their performance and progress, and giving stakeholders regular updates on the team’s progress. fostering adaptation by supporting the ongoing development and assisting the team in identifying and resolving any problems that might be obstructing their success.

Training the team members in the values, roles, events, and artifacts of the Scrum framework removes any barriers that the team needs to deliver the work. aiding in the team’s understanding of the importance of inspection and adaption in the Scrum framework. Make sure the group is adhering to the rules and methodology of Scrum. Encourage the team to use metrics to assess performance and progress. Check to see if the team is adhering to the Definition of Done. Encourage the team to try out novel concepts and methods in order to foster continual progress.


What do you mean by Scrum Master as a Servant Leader?

In the Scrum framework, an Agile project management and completion approach, a Scrum Master is a servant leader. This means that the Scrum Master serves as a facilitator and coach for the development team, assisting them in maintaining their attention on the project’s objectives and removing any roadblocks to their progress. In order to make sure that everyone is on the same page and speaking clearly, the Scrum Master also acts as a point of contact between the development team and other stakeholders, such as the product owner and management. As a servant leader, a Scrum Master wants to enable the development team to self-organize and make decisions that will enable them to produce high-quality products quickly.


Is daily standup recommended for all teams regardless of their size and experience level. Explain.

A daily standup, sometimes referred to as a daily scrum, is a suggested procedure in the Scrum project management and execution framework. The daily standup is designed to allow team members to rapidly explain what they have accomplished since the previous standup, what they have planned to accomplish before the next standup, and any roadblocks to their progress.

Every team, regardless of size or level of expertise, should normally do daily standups since they can assist the team stay focused and aligned on the project’s goals. Daily standups can also assist in identifying and resolving issues before they escalate into bigger concerns.

It’s crucial to remember that the daily standup may be conducted differently depending on the team’s size and level of experience. A large team might need to break up into smaller groups to do the standup, whereas a team with less expertise could want additional instruction on how to conduct the standup successfully. The daily standup should be modified by the Scrum Master as needed to meet the needs of the team.


What do you understand about Scope Creep? How can Scope Creep be managed?

The potential for a project’s scope to move beyond its initial aims and objectives is known as “scope creep.” This may occur if the project is given new needs or if existing requirements are not clearly defined.

In a Scrum project, having a distinct and well-defined definition of done for each user story is one technique to control scope creep. This makes sure that everyone knows exactly what has to be done before the story can be said to be finished. Additionally, maintaining a frequently updated and prioritised product backlog will assist guarantee that new requirements are only added to the project when they are consistent with the project’s overall goals and objectives.

A dedicated Scrum Master who can help keep the project on track and make sure that any new needs are analysed and prioritised in connection to the project’s overall goals is another technique to control scope creep. Furthermore, regular Scrum meetings like Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective can aid in locating and resolving any potential scope creep concerns.

In conclusion, a dedicated Scrum Master, frequent Scrum meetings, a defined definition of done, and a frequently reviewed and prioritised product backlog can all aid in managing scope creep in a Scrum project.


Can the Scrum team be involved in the product discovery process? If so, explain how.

The answer is that the Scrum team can take part in the product discovery phase. Because it is adaptable, the Scrum framework may be customised to meet the unique requirements of a project.

“Scrum of Scrums” (SoS) sessions are one way “Scrum of Scrums” (SoS) sessions can be used to involve the Scrum team in product discovery. Representatives from all Scrum teams gather at the SoS to exchange information and coordinate actions. The Scrum teams can then use these insights and ideas to inform the product discovery process by sharing their perspectives on the product and its features.

Using “Scrum of Scrums” (SoS) sessions is another method the Scrum team can be involved. Representatives from all Scrum teams gather at the SoS to exchange information and coordinate actions. The Scrum teams can then use these insights and ideas to inform the product discovery process by sharing their perspectives on the product and its features.

Scrum teams can also take part in user research, usability testing, and market research in order to contribute to the product discovery process. These exercises can aid the team in developing a more thorough grasp of the issue domain, user requirements, and business goals, which can then be used to guide the creation of the product backlog and the entire product development cycle.

The Scrum team can participate in activities that promote information gathering and sharing about the product and its features, as well as by offering suggestions and comments on the product backlog and development process, to name a few ways.


When should a Scrum Master not act as a facilitator?

When there is an inherent prejudice or conflict of interest, a Scrum Master should not serve as a facilitator. For instance, it would be improper for the Scrum Master to lead the conversation if they were also a member of the development team and were actively taking part in a decision that had an impact on the team. It would be preferable in these circumstances to use a neutral facilitator. In addition, if the Scrum Master is unqualified or inexperienced to lead the conversation, they should refrain from doing so.


In this comprehensive interview guide, we have covered a wide range of Scrum Master interview questions and provided detailed answers to help you prepare for your Scrum Master interviews. These questions cover various aspects of the Scrum framework, Agile practices, team facilitation, and leadership.

The role of a Scrum Master is crucial in ensuring effective implementation of Scrum principles and supporting the development team in achieving project success. By familiarizing yourself with the interview questions and answers in this guide, you can demonstrate your knowledge and expertise in Scrum practices, showcase your ability to lead and facilitate Agile teams, and highlight your problem-solving skills.


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